The processes and methods used to transform tangible inputs (raw materials, semi-finished goods, subassemblies) and intangible inputs (ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. Resources are used in this process to create an output that is suitable for use or has exchange value.


  • Concept/Ideation
  • Program & Portfolio Management
  • Design/NPI
  • Supplier/Channel Collaboration
  • Manufacturing/ Engineering
  • Prototype/Virtual Validation
  • Production Realization & Quality
  • Product Launch
  • Goods
  • Maintain & Service
  • Retire